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What are the different types of programming languages and how to used those languages for communicate with a computer ?
Computer programming is the iterative process of writing or editing source code, followed by testing, analyzing and refining this code. A person who practices this skill is referred to as a computer programmer or software developer. The sometimes lengthy process of computer programming is usually referred to as software development, with the term software engineering becoming more popular as the process comes to be seen as an engineering discipline.
One approach to this process is team programming, in which each member of the group has equal say in the development process, except for one person who guides the group through discrepancies. Another approach is referred to as peer structures and a variety of different algorithms to operate on them.
Language – An Introduction
You are aware with the term language. It is a system of communication between you and me. Some of the basic natural languages that we are familiar with English, Hindi, Punjabi etc. These are the languages used to communicate among various categories of persons. But how you will communicate with your computer. Your computer will not understand any of these natural languages for transfer of data and instruction.
So there are programming languages specially development so that you could pass your data and instructions to the computer to do specific job. You must have heard names like FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC etc.. These are programming languages. So instructions or programs written in a particular language based on the type of job. As an example, for scientific application FORTRAN and C Language are used. On the other hand COBOL is used for business applications.
Types of programming languages
There are two major types of computer or programming languages-low level or high level. The low level language is further divided into machine language and assembly language. On the other hand, high-level language can be further divided into 3rd generation and 4th generation language
Machine language is the fundamental language of the computer consists of strings of binary numbers (0 and 1),which is directly understood by computer. Computers do not understand English, Hindi or any other Human language. They respond only to machine language. Added to this, Computer are not identical in design. Therefore, each computer has its own machine language. However, the script , 1 and 0,, is same for all computers. This posses several problems for the users.
- Machine language instructions are directly executed, as there is no compilation or translation procedure involved.
- Shorter execution time is required for machine language program.
- It gives the programmer a direct control of hardware details.
- Machine language is machine dependent or different computer have different machine languages.
- The program in machine language is difficult to read, understand and modify.
- High programming skill is required to do programming in machine language.
To ease the programmer’s burden, mnemonic codes were devolved in 1950. Thus an assembly language uses the mnemonic codes rather than the numeric codes. For example add the mnemonic codes for addition and sub the mnemonic codes for subtraction etc. assembly language is also called symbolic language as it is used symbols instead of numbers is a program. Since the instructions written in the program are translated into the machine language in order to understand by the computer hence it is also called machine dependent language.
- Operation codes used to assembly language can be replaced by mnemonic codes, which are easier to remember.
- Modification is quite simple with assembly language program.
- Less efforts is involved in writing the program.
- Assembly language is also machine dependent .
- Programming involves lot of writing.
- Assembly language program is less efficient compared to machine language program.
High level language
Development of mnemonic technique led to the development of high level language. The most important characteristics of a high level language are that it is machine independent and program written in high level language can bee run on different machine with little or no modifications. A program written in high level language is also known as source program. And can be run on different machine using different translators. The translated program is called object program. For example high level languages are FOTRAN, BASIC and COBOL etc.
- High level language is a machine independent language.
- Writing program in high level language require less time because the source program is written in simple ENGLISH.
- Modifications are quite easy and straightforward.
- High level language program is less efficient compared to machine language program.
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